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Six different interaction patterns between members of different species can be distinguished (Lidicker, 1979) (see Figure 1 for potential interactions within the metaorganism exemplified in Hydra). In this complex system microbes may interact with each other in multiple ways as depicted by arrows.
For the species involved interactions can have a positive ( ), a negative (-) or no impact (0).
For disentangling the interactions in microbial communities, it is essential to understand the importance of the two key motifs, cooperation and competition.
It is likely that interactions between specific microbes and the host can be modulated by metabolic or physical signals but that the host also directly affects the interaction between microbial species (dashed arrows) via epithelial selection. Bacterial colonization of Hydra hatchlings follows a robust temporal pattern.
In Hydra, microbial communities of wild caught and domesticated animals have been found to be surprisingly similar and to share a core microbiota at the taxonomic level (Fraune and Bosch, 2007).
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